Tampu tocco, Machu Picchu and mysteries of inca cities

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Part II : Discovery of an architectural form

Inca cities and sacred animals

The Incas worshiped many sacred animals. Abroad, the best known of these is probably the condor, because of its size and its unique presence in this part of the globe.
But the Incas worshiped other animals: the puma, caiman ...
Some of their cities were built along the lines of the shape of animals, as is the case for the fortress of Sacsayhuaman near Cuzco, whose name in Quechua means "satisfied falcon." Contrary to what its name suggests, this fortress to the shape of a puma's head, the body being the city Cusco.
Another city of the Sacred Valley, Pisac, whose name refers to a species of partridge has disappeared, the shape of a bird.
At Machu Picchu, some see the city as a Cayman, as a Condor or a Puma drawn on the wall of the mountain.
The discovery described in this article indicates that the last of these assumptions is false, namely the overall shape is identified as a condor in flight (shown in Figure 1).

The discovery of a new form for the city

The discovery presented in this article focuses on the error related to the shape of the city. It stems from an observation made November 24, 2008, from the top of Huayna Picchu.
The shape of the city is that of a bird but it is not the commonly accepted condor. This form is highlighted in Figure 2.

The form is easily observable from the top of Huayna Picchu, logical point of view certainly helped with its planning. The bird is then presented in profile, lying, not unfolded wings, eyes facing the Inca Trail and Cusco. The main domestic routes from the city, delineating the different zones architectural or group, are used to specify the form. The wing consists of Intihuatana and religious neighborhoods. The Royal Tomb and the Temple of the Sun, only circular wall of the city, located in the heart of the design. The legs of the bird are bounded by the districts of peasants, the torso by the terraces. Found in the thigh of fortified buildings and raised. The precision in the design of the city leaves no doubt about the willingness of its builders. Another remarkable fact, while the terraces are almost all in the form of quadrilaterals, a terrace at the head has the precise shape of an eye.

Unlike that of the condor in Figure 1, it is more consistent with the Inca and geometric representations of birds in Inca art. In addition, the bird is drawn along the lines of the mountain, his feet in altitude the lower his head at the highest altitude, unlike the design of Condor is "upside .

Machu Picchu is truly a magnificent example of Inca skill builders. Perfection in the form of the city proves it. Succeeding in a remote place, difficult of access, to build both a city of this size and following a construction scheme for accurate and artistic, is an incredible feat.

This form, more logical than that of a condor in flight, opens new avenues for reflection on the city. It contains perhaps the key to identify it.

New information on the city following the discovery

On the one hand, the city plans were designed to be viewed from the top of Huayna Picchu and have probably been drawn from there. The presence of buildings at the top allowed the Incas to observe the work and directing. Garcilasso de la Vega, a contemporary of the Incas, wrote them that they were expert in topography, based on the fact that they have managed to make a relief map of the city of Cuzco, faithfully reproducing the places, buildings, streets (5) ... The construction of the city has taken several years, the existence of a construction plan is likely. Interestingly, a drawing of a bird sits on a stone at the top of Huayna Picchu. It can be seen in Figure 3. It could be a test or design. A more detailed study was required in the area of Huayna Picchu.

On the other hand, one might think that the city was never intended to grow once the desired shape obtained. It was not a city prone to welcome new residents in large numbers. For cons the city may have been the extension of a smaller city the moment when the extension was decided, the final plan was already known. In this case, we can assume that some modest size of the city is now the city of origin.

Finally, as shown in the drawing, to understand its meaning, consider the city as a whole and not only inhabited part to understand the meaning. Only through every part of the design that the city takes the form of a bird. We must avoid the trap that is present to observe the city from the House of the Guardian, Observer privileged place for tourists to really consider the city as a whole, as one can observe Huayna Picchu. Thus, we see an area of the city, now badly interpreted, seems to have a major role: the part situated at the head of the bird. There is a kallanka, the terrace-shaped eye, House Keeper, a cubical building whose usefulness is still unknown, a rock tomb, a graveyard and two separations. While many archaeologists stress the importance of Intihuatana its highest position of the city, they do not take into consideration the area of the terraces. Now this area around the terrace-shaped eye is the highest in the city. The areas of the city appear to be important governed by their position in the drawing. For example, the royal tomb and the temple of the sun are located in the heart, the religious neighborhoods in the wing.

Three interesting facts added to the index given by the position in the design of the city. First, an inconsistency on the keeper's house. It is considered a place of surveillance but has no window providing visibility on the road entering the city. Secondly, the function of the cubic structure, built near the cemetery, opposite the keeper's house has never been identified. Finally, the upper structure, which forms a kallanka the eyebrow of the eye in shape, is usually located at the main square of the Inca cities. We can therefore assume that the terrace-shaped eye is linked to events that brought together many people and it has an importance greater than allowed today. His study we could clarify the role of the city to the Inca period.

The discovery of this form of bird changes the understanding of the city but the main data missing at this point is the identity of the bird shown in the drawing. It is unlikely to be a condor, the proportions do not correspond to the animal. The answer to the issue of identification of that other sacred bird could be decisive in determining the identity of the city.

(5) Comentarios Reales de los Incas, Garcilaso de la Vega, 1609

The sacred birds among the Incas

We can find indications of the sacred birds of the Inca culture in texts and legends of the era. In particular, two birds with one does not know the exact kind, or form. These are birds associated with legends.
The first, from local legends, is Pilco (or jaccachu, akakllos, llak'heto) capable by the juice that secreted to dissolve the stone and make a dough that can be molded.
The second is Qoriquenke, whose name appears in a legend of Pisac. The texts give little clues to benefit both birds and they do not seem to be the object of worship among the Incas.

We discounted the condor whose shape and position do not correspond with those of the drawing. Through the stories of several authors, it seems that the condor is not the bird as present in the legends and celebrations of the Inca time advantage but the falcon.

Found in the writings of many references to statues of falcons used in ceremonies to designate certain senior soldiers in the Inca army, or to decorate the shields. We also found the word hawk in queshua Huaman, in the name of some important buildings or Huamantiana as Sacsayhuaman (satisfied falcon or the throne of falcon).

However, the sanctity of the falcon appears strongly linked to the character of Manco Capac, the first Inca, and his ancestors, Amautas. It is likely that they have preserved the sanctity of this bird in the Inca culture. It is said in legends that Inca Manco Capac, born Tampu Tocco, was designated and accompanied by Inti (or India), a falcon belonging to his ancestors Amautas. This hawk who accompanied him in his quest was his huauque (brother or friend, soul mate). The animal was considered sacred or enchanted and he became an oracle from the reign of Mayta Capac (6).

If we compare the shape to that of a hawk, especially the falcon Perdiguero (fig. 4), a falcon and contemporary Andean Inca, one can find a resemblance. The posture of vigilance and observation is a classical posture in the falcon. In addition, the shape of the terrace below the eyeball can be the difference in coloration of plumage of this bird (Fig. 4).

(6) Handbook of Inca Mythologie, Paul Steele, 2004, ABC CLIO, p108

<< Part I : Machu Picchu, a city whose identity remains a mystery.
>> Part III: Machu Picchu and Tampu-tocco: the same city?
fig. 1
actual condor shape


fig. 2
bird shape discover


fig.3
bird sculpture on huayna picchu


















































fig.4
Falcon Perdiguero





 
     
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